The Brain : Contents Page

Tutorial Website

Introduction to the Website

Gross Anatomy


Clinical Neuroscience

Chapter One: The Cells of the Central Nervous System. Overview         Top

Introduction to the Anatomy of the CNS

Some Anatomical Terms

Embryology and Neural Tube Defects

Neurones: Properties of Nerve Cells

Glia: Types and Functions of Glial Cells

Connections between Nerve Cells: Synapses

Introduction to Neuropathology

Lower Motoneurone Lesions

Clinical Neurophysiology

Neuronal Changes in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Glial Changes in Multiple Sclerosis

Tutorials         Chapter Two: The Spinal Cord. Overview         Top

Spinal Cord: Grey and White Matter

Tracts in the White Matter of the Spinal Cord

Sensory Receptors

Spinal Reflexes

Electrophysiology of Spinal Reflexes

Spinal Grey Matter and its Projections

Spinal Grey Matter: The Ventral Horn

Autonomic Nervous System

Spinal Injuries


Tutorials         Chapter Three: The Forebrain and Somatosensory System. Overview         Top

Brainstem and Cranial Nerves

Gross Anatomy of the Forebrain

Microscopic Structure of the Cerebral Cortex

Functions of the Cerebral Cortex

Somatic Sensation and Cerebral Cortex



Phantom Limbs

Chronic Pain

Tutorials         Chapter Four: Forebrain and Control of Movement. Overview         Top

Motor Pathways in the CNS

The Control of Voluntary Movement

Balance and the Control of Eye Movements



Tutorials         Chapter Five: Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Overview         Top

Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

Physiology of the Cerebellum

Physiology of the Basal Ganglia

Parkinson's Disease

Other Abnormalities of Movement

Tutorials         Chapter Six: Brainstem Reticular Formation Overview         Top

Reticular Formation

Descending Reticular Formation

Sleep and Arousal

Ascending Reticular Activating System

Cellular Basis for EEG Rhythms

Sleep Disorders

Chapter Seven: Hypothalamus and Pituitary Overview         Top

Hypothalamus and Pituitary

Central Control of Autonomic Functions

Functions of the Hypothalamus

Stress and Anxiety

Chapter Eight: The Hippocampus and Limbic System Overview         Top

Hippocampus and Limbic System

Hippocampus and Memory

Limbic System

Depression and Schizophrenia

Chapter Nine: Neuroplasticity Overview         Top


Neuroplasticity in Brain Injury

Recommended External Links on Neuroscience          Top

The Flip-Flop Hypothesis for the Sleep-Waking Cycle
The Ventro-Lateral PreOptic Nucleus of the Hypothalamus
The Arousal System
The Orexins
Mechanisms underlying Spinal Reflexes
Electrophysiology of Reflex Excitation and Inhibition
Interneurones in the Ventral Horn
Sleep Architecture and the Effects of Hypnotic Drugs
Sleep Apnoea
Role of Orexins in Narcolepsy
Neural Networks
Central Pattern Generators
Histochemical Definition of RF Nuclei
Projections of RF to Somatic, Autonomic and Sensory areas of the Cord
Cerebellar Input and Output Pathways
The Inferior Olivary Pathway
Somatotopic Maps on the Spino-cerebellum
Circuits in the Cerebellar Cortex
Purkinje Cells, Mossy and Climbing Fibres
Cerebellar Modules and Microzones
Motor Learning
Tremor and Ataxia
Intention Tremors
Non-Intention Tremors
Chorea and Athetosis
Other Ataxias
Symptoms and Signs
Pathological Changes in the brains of Parkinson's patients
Deep Brain Stimulation
Sleep Rhythms
EEG analysis during Sleep
Stages of Sleep
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Sleep Architecture
Sleep Deprivation and the Effects of Drugs
Functions and Connections within the Basal Ganglia
Wiring Diagram of the Components of the Basal Ganglia
Medium Spiny Neurones and Effects of Dopamine
Substantia Nigra and Nigro-Striatal Pathways
The Direct and Indirect Pathways
Deep Brain Stimulation
Neurotransmitters in the Reticular Formation
Cholinergic Pathways
Noradrenergic Pathways
Dopaminergic Pathways
Serotoninergic Pathways
Peptidergic Pathways
Possible Role of Glutamate
Types of Stroke
Signs and Symptoms
Distribution of the Middle Cerebral Artery
Hypertonus and Hyperreflexia
The Internal Capsule
The Corticospinal Tract
Cortico-Bulbar Neurones
Bulbo-Spinal Pathways
The Sense of Balance
Responses to Tilting
Eye Movements during Tilting
Responses to Rotation
Vestibular Pathways
Vestibular Connections with the Cerebellum
Control of the Intrinsic Muscles of the Eye
The Sense of Balance
Responses to Tilting
Eye Movements during Tilting
Responses to Rotation
Vestibular Pathways
Vestibular Connections with the Cerebellum
Control of the Intrinsic Muscles of the Eye
Cortical Control of Movements
Pre-motor and Supplementary Motor Areas
Eye Movements
Bulbo-Spinal Pathways and Muscle Tone
Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum
Cerebellar Pathways
Development of the Cerebellum
Gross Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
Internal Structure of the Basal Ganglia
Rexed's Laminae and the Structure of the Ventral Horn
Longitudinal Columns of Motoneurones in the Ventral Horn
Arrangement of Motoneurones Innervating Extensors and Flexors
Arrangement of Motoneurones Innervating Proximal and Distal Muscles
The Lateral Horn
The Nature of Phantom Limb Pain
The Neuroma Theory of Phantom Pain
Cortical Reorganisation following Amputation
Primary Hyperalgesia
Secondary Hyperalgesia
Voltage-gated sodium channels in nociceptors
Neuropathic changes in nociceptive afferents
Sensitization : Endogenous Algesic Agents
Visceral and Referred Pain
Pain and Temperature Pathways
Alternative Anterolateral Pathways
Gate Theory and Descending Control of the Dorsal Horn
Chronic Pain and Phantom Limb Pain
Vibration Receptors
Dorsal Column-Medial Leminscal Pathway
Vibratory and Proprioceptive Representation in SI
Correlation of Structure and Function
Peripheral Receptors
Two Point Discrimination
Somatotopic Map
Dorsal Columns
Dorsal Column Nuclei
Lateral Inhibition
Somatosensory Cortex
Overview of Cortical Functions
Methods of Studying Cortical Functions
Diagram of Cortical Areas
Somatosensory Areas
Motor Areas
Association Areas
The Executive role of the Frontal Lobes
Layers of the Cerebral Cortex
Pyramidal Neurones
Spine Synapses
Cortical Columns
Functions of the Cortex
Lobes of the cerebral hemispheres
Internal structure of the cerebral hemispheres
Specialised Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
The Cerebral Ventricles and Vessels
The Ventral Surface of the Brain
Brainstem Anatomy
Medulla and Pons
Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerve Nuclei
Pathology and MRI of a Sphyrinx
Signs and Symptoms of Syringomyelia
Dermatomes and the level of Cord Injury
Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury
Brown-Sequard Syndrome
Infarction of the Spinal Cord
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Overview
Divisions of the ANS
Functions of the ANS (Overview)
Antagonistic Effects of the two parts of the ANS
Cardiovascular System
Respiratory System
Gastro-Intestinal System
Urogenital System
The Dorsal Horn
Rexed's Laminae
Inputs to the Dorsal Horn
Ascending Projections from the Dorsal Horn
Spinal Reflexes
The Stretch Reflex
The Tonic Stretch Reflex
Reflex Pathways
Physiological Characteristics of Spinal Reflexes
Spinal Reflexes: Summary of the Differences
Central Pattern Generators
Clinical Aspects of Spinal Reflexes
Morphology of Sensory Neurones
Functional Properties of Sensory Neurones
Classifiction according to axon diameter
Muscle and Tendon Receptors
More details of the Muscle Spindle
Cutaneous Receptors
Pain and Nociception: Vanilloid Receptors
Endogenous Algesic Agents and Analgesic Drugs
Tracts in the Spinal Cord
Ascending Pathways to the Thalamus and Cortex
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Arterial Supply to the Spinal Cord
Enlargements of the Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord Injury
Autonomic Nervous System
Wallerian Degeneration
The 'Dying Back' Phenomenon
Axonal Pathologies
Inclusion Bodies in Perikarya
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Disorders of Axoplasmic Transport
Plaques - extracellular accumulations of beta-Amyloid
Pathology of Oligodendrocytes and Schwann Cells
Symptoms of Dementia
Inclusion Bodies in Perikarya
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Plaques - extracellular accumulations of beta-Amyloid
Neuronal Cell Death and brain atrophy
Disorders of Axoplasmic Transport
Anatomical Terms such as:
Superior, Inferior, Anterior, Posterior
Dorsal, Ventral, Rostral, Caudal
Coronal, Sagittal, Horizontal, Longitudinal
Lower Motoneurone damage leads to
Muscular weakness
Muscular atrophy
Electrophysiological changes in the muscle
Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis
Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis
Demography of Multiple Sclerosis
Aetiology of Demyelinating Diseases
Electophysiology of Human Nerves
Nerve Conduction Tests
Evoked Potentials
Visual Evoked Potential
Electromyography (EMG)
Electroencephalography (EEG)
Embryology of the CNS
Spina Bifida
Structure of Synapses and Dendrites
Physiology of Synapses
Neurotransmitters in the CNS:
  Glutamate, GABA, Glycine
Synapses without Vesicles
Types of Glial Cells
Regulation of the Environment of Neurones
Role of Astrocytes at Synapses
Role of Astrocytes on the Cerebral Circulation
Oligodendrocytes and Myelination in the CNS
Microglia, Ependymal Cells, Tanycytes
Introduction to the Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Segmental Structure of the Spinal Cord
Embryology of the CNS
Structure and Function of Neurones
Resting Potential
Action Potential
Axonal Transport
Nerve Regeneration

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HumanPhysiology.Academy 2014-2015